Brexit negotiations under a minority governmentCommons Library Insight, 9 June 2017As the consequences of joining the Brexit negotiations under a minority government The EU published a bill on 18 March 2020. It covers all areas of negotiations, including trade and economic cooperation (with strong and fair conditions of competition for open and fair competition), law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, participation in EU programmes and other thematic areas of cooperation. A specific chapter on governance provides an overview of a general governance framework covering all areas of economic cooperation. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. Some EU rules on food and agriculture also apply to NI during the backstop period. Existing controls on animals and animal products moving from the UK to NI need to be strengthened. The political statement states that provisions to address health and plant protection barriers to trade barriers should be introduced “on the basis of WTO agreements and going beyond.” The British Parliament approved the draft agreement by adopting on 23 January 2020 the implementing laws (the 2020 Withdrawal Agreement Act) of the European Union (withdrawal agreement). Following the signing of the agreement, the UK Government adopted and tabled the UK`s ratification instrument on 29 January 2020.  The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after approval by the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The UK`s withdrawal from the EU came into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 .m GMT, when the withdrawal agreement came into force in accordance with Article 185.
Ireland plays a role in the negotiations as a member of the EU-27. EU member states have given UKTF a mandate to negotiate future relations with the UK. UKTF regularly consults with Member States and the European Parliament as negotiations progress. The government regularly works with its EU counterparts and key stakeholders on these important issues. Ireland will continue to work constructively for our values and interests as a member of the EU-27. Draft Withdrawal Agreement: 7 pages De SignetsCommons Library Research Briefing, 15 November 2018Refini links to the draft withdrawal agreement and other documents published by the government and the European Commission The agreement also provides for a transition period that will last until 31 December 2020 and can be renewed once by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies.